The History and Origin Rock and Roll

Where did “Rock and roll” originate. “Rock and roll” has not always been a part of the world of music. So the question arises as to where “Rock and roll” actually got its start and become such a dominant force in music cultures around the world. I will attempt to go back in time and discover the history and origin of “Rock and Roll”.

It has been probably well over fifty years since the first “Rock and Roll” record was recorded. However, with the help of the historical archives, a lot of information is still available, and hopefully it should not be too difficult to establish the history and origin of “Rock and Roll”.

First, there will have to be a reasonable definition of what is “Rock and Roll”. How do we distinguish artistic music as either jazz, blues, country, opera or “Rock and Roll”. As one US Supreme Court justice said when trying to define pornography “You just know it when you see it”. Hopefully, this discussion can be more specific, and when all is said and done we will have a relatively clear definition of “Rock and Roll”, and where Rock and Roll originated or evolved.

In this discussion I will, for the most part, base my generalities on the history of “Rock and Roll” (hereafter RR) from entries made in Wikipedia (hereafter WP). Having reviewed numerous articles on the subject, WP is as reliable as any article on the subject. And WP seems to have a concise and accurate summary of the founding RR artist at issue and the history and origin of RR.(All the artist mentioned have their own page on WP to review)

It is well established that the first use of the term “Rock and Roll” in the public forum was made by Alan Freed, a Cleveland,Ohio disc jockey, who later organized and promoted some of the first RR concerts, consisting of a number of early RR groups, along with other rhythm and blues groups of the early 1950’s.(See A. Freed WP)

Many assert that the first RR song to have been recorded was done by Big Joe Turner “Roll em Pete”, an upbeat jazz song with a boogie piano. (1939) Others consider the Ike Turner recording “Rocket 88” (1951) at Sam Phillip’s Sun Records. Even others consider the (1954) recording of Bill Haley and the Comets “Rock Around the Clock”, a big band version of rock to be the first RR recording. And others point to Elvis Presley’s (1954) recording “That’s All Right Mama” to be the first true RR recorded song. And you can not ignore Little Richard’s boogie piano of the mid 1950’s.

As the son of Paul Burlison (WP), a RR rockabilly pioneer with the Rock and Roll Trio (WP), I have also included some of the trio’s recordings (1953 “Your Undecided” and 1956 “Train Kept A Rollin”). The Rock and roll trio, being a good example of how a country group began using a rockabilly style in the early 1950’s. The trio’s songs having been covered by such groups as The Yardbirds, Aerosmith, Led Zeppelen, The Straycats, Los Lobos, Rod Stewert and even the Beatles, to name a few.. And as an early rockabiller my father conveyed to me a number of facts and stories about those early days of RR that I believe has given me a first hand perspective on the subject.. Having been born in 1951, I have been fortunate enough to spend some time back stage with a number of rock stars over the years through my dad, and in essence, I have had a front row seat on the development of RR over the last 50 plus years.

During the early 1950’s, in an around Memphis,Tennessee, the Rock and Roll Trio and other hillbilly bop groups were rotating the local honkytonks on weekend gigs. And many of the early rockabilly artist began to experiment with a new sound while playing at the Saturday Night Jamboree in Memphis, playing at The Goodwyn auditorium and during their Saturday performances in the early 1950’s they created what became rockabilly. (See WP- Rockabilly)

The music of the south in the early 1950’s was basic jazz, country ballads and for the most part slow moving blues songs. The dance of the day, following the big band World War II era, was the jitterbug. The jitterbug was a fast paced dance that was usually danced to the upbeat tunes of the big band era during the war and continued into the early 1950’s. The owners and managers of the honkytonks wanted the patrons to stay and dance as long as possible- (obviously). The only way a small four piece band could keep the patrons dancing was to play country and blues songs with a upbeat version of the songs they knew, and by doing so, this would allow the jitterbug/bop to be performed and keep the patrons/managers happy. And the result was- rockabilly. It is safe to say that even Elvis was influenced by the early Memphis rockabillers (as well as the blues, country and gospel songs of the day). The early rockabillers routinely had jam sessions(including Elvis’ future band members Scotty Moore and Bill Black) in and around Humes high school where Elvis attended and in the basement of Lauderdale Courts Apts..where Elvis grew up as an early teenager. (See Rock and Roll Trio-WP)

After reading the materials on the subject and listening to the early rock recordings, I think it will be clear that RR evolved from all forms of music available to the founding artist-including jazz,country, blues, gospel and big band swing music. The one common denominator is a upbeat/uptempo version of music that “rocks”. RR makes you move (in your rocking chair or on the dance floor), and to understand RR you have to first look at rock and roll in the context of the dances of the day from the jitterbug to disco dancing. The primary goal was, and still is, to get patrons on the dance floor, and provide the cultural introduction of men and women in a social setting.

The first really uniform presentation of the “Rock N’ Roll” band is found in the numerous rockabilly groups that formed in the mid and late 1950’s.You can see a unified sound in such rockabilly groups as Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Johnny Burnette and the Rock and Roll trio, Chuck Berry (1953-56), followed by such artist as Jerry Lee Lewis, Buddy Holly, Gene Vincent, Billy Lee Riley, (1957-1959) and many more.

In the later fifties rockabilly had run its course. A lot of the problems with rockabilly was the fact that many parents objected to the suggestive language of the new sound and many radio stations had problems playing some of these rockabilly artist’s works, even though they are considered RR classics today.

I honestly believe that the untimely death of Buddy Holly had a major contribution to the demise of rockabilly. It was during the mid-fifties that the teenager was expressing their independence and rebellion to authority more than ever. Just view the James Dean classic movie “Rebel Without A Cause”. With rockabilly the teens had their own music, and with all the rebellious overtones throughout. As Don McClean recorded in “American Pie”, both insightful and poetic, in referring to the untimely death of Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, J.P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson, in the tragic plane crash of 1959, it was “the day the music died”.

When these three young rockabilly stars suddenly passing away all at once, and with bad publicity surrounding a number of the rockabilly stars, I’m sure it put a damper on the teen’s new music of rebellion. Many adults had asserted that RR was the devil’s music and now with the death of these stars, the teens of the day probably took a step back in their new found music and rebellion, at least until the British invasion.

In the early 1960’s there was the emergence of the teen ballad. Such artist as Bobby Vinton, Paul Anka, Franky Avalon and Johnny Burnette( of the trio fame) produced some classic and very popular teen ballads consisting of backup accompaniments of violins, back up singers and the big band orchestras familiar with the styles of Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Perry Como, Tony Bennet and a host of early balladiers.

During the early 1960’s the garage band was taking root, especially in England. And in the mid-1960’s there was the British invasion, lead by the Beatles. Followed by many,many other British groups-including The Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin, The Rolling Stones, and so forth.

The interesting fact about the British groups is that all of them for the most part found their roots in Southern Rockabilly and Mississippi Delta Blues. And these British rock groups modeled their music on the early rockabilly/blues sounds and lyrics of the 1940’s and 1950’s. (See WP on the artist mentioned) Obviously, following the British invasion of the 1960’s, and from the mid 1960’s to today, there has been tens of thousands of rock groups to make the music scene.

What made rockabilly so appealing to the 1960’s rockers was that a small group-A rhythm guitar singer, a bass player, an electric lead guitar and a drummer could find a garage and make music. There was no need for the extravagant backup of singers, violins or a full piece orchestra. They could create a catchy sound that they could play at the local club, get people dancing and make a little spending money.

After all said, what was the first Rock and Roll song. If I have to vote, I would have to agree with the Rolling Stones Magazine and vote for “That’s All Right Mama” (1954) by Elvis. This song, more than all the other songs mentioned, had the greatest immediate impact and influence on rock and roll. (However, all the songs mentioned have had an impact). Before “That’s All Right Mama” RR was beginning to show its face in big band swing music, rhythm and blues boogie and hillbilly bop. However, with the unique and novel sound of the Elvis recording in 1954 a new genre of music was alive and well- (Rock and Roll-a song of which to dance, listen and enjoy)

Within a year of the Elvis 1954 recording everyone that knew three cords on a guitar was forming a band and changing their hairstyles, especially in the south where the 1954 release was a big hit, and from where most rockabillers originated. If rockabilly had been performed before 1954, Elvis’ 1954 recording launched it to a new much higher level (Rock and Roll). Rockabilly groups ( the early rock groups) were created by the dozens to follow what Elvis had showed others what could be done with rockabilly and the rockabilly craze was born almost overnight. And, as discussed, rockabilly more than any other form of music had the most significant impact on the contemporary rock and roll artist that followed, and still today. Many might disagree, but few can name a single song that changed the course of music so profoundly and so quickly.

Of course, following “That’s Alright Mama”, Elvis became an international sensation with “Hound Dog” in 1956, and the whole world wanted to hear more from Elvis and the new rockabilly stars that followed Elvis’ lead. And that early rock sound can still be heard today in the contemporary rock artist of today.

In closing, just maybe the best way to define Rock and Roll is in the context of the garage band and the ability of four of five novice teenage musicians to create appealing songs to their generation and have a forum to express these songs in public at the local weekend clubs and dances…As they rock the nights away…And the rest is history…the history of rock and roll..Welcome your comment..God’s speed, David Burlison.

Measurements of Fidelity of Implementation and Knowledge Outcomes for the Teaching of the STEP Prog.

Evaluation Problem:

Current social and cultural conditions demand an understanding by parents; the need for their children to become good at making choices, and a need for parents to consider modifying their parenting styles are keys to effective parenting (Dinkermeyer, Mckay & Dinkermeyer, 1997). In order for parents to modify their parenting styles, they must obtain research based parenting knowledge that will assist with modifying and enhancing their abilities to effectively parent their children.

Research Question:

When the Systematic Training for Effective Parenting curriculum is taught to

a parental education support group, will parent participants display an increase in curricular knowledge under conditions that express a high amount of fidelity?

Goal of Evaluative Proposal:

The goal of this evaluation is to evaluate if group members have learned program objectives that relate to good parenting and to evaluate if implementation conditions meet standards of high fidelity.
This proposal has three objectives:

1. To increase level of knowledge:

Literary Support: Quantitative methods and the use of a pre and post test evaluate learning outcomes in relation to fidelity of implementation (Mark, 1996).

Activities: Administer a quantitative method; initial pre and post test knowledge survey.

2. To verify through a single-person observation of implementation standards:

Literary Support: Research shows that facilitators who have standards of implementation that are connected to key elements of high fidelity assist’s in effective teaching (Dusenbury, Branningan, Falco, & Hansen, 2003). Single-subject design methods through direct-observation are employed to evaluate direct service processes (Mark, 1996).

Activities: Single-subject design method with direct observation by curriculum expert; analyze facilitator’s utilization and expression of standards of implementation regarding the curriculum over eight sessions. A noticeable increase in expressive skill should be indicated.

3. To monitor member’s motivation to attend all eight sessions:

Literary Support: Attendance is required if a member is expected to learn all course objectives.

Activities: Analyze client log to gain insight on percentage of attendance.

Problematic Conditions

Currently values of authoritarian parenting no longer are functional avenues for parenting (Dinkermeyer, et al., 1997). Children need authoritative parenting in which they have choices and feelings of control regarding their behavior and consequences; this will prepare them for the ever complicated and changing society in which we now live (Dinkermeyer, et al., 1997). Reducing much of the stress within family systems through education can also reduce the chances of violence against children and others within the home (Bird & Melville, 1994). This research is why court systems order some parents to mandatory parental educational support groups such as the STEP program. Divorce and blended families are now more than ever a consistent fabric within the family structures of society. These changes and transitions within family systems demand greater understandings of ones role, structure and perceptions (Gelles, 1995). According to Bird & Melville (1994) standards and expectations are also reevaluated in blended families. Parenting educational support groups such as STEP assist with identifying the child and parents roles, the expectations, and finding positive ways to address the child’s behavior. It is also clearly understood that there is no exam or licensing that declares parents are ready or understand the difficulty and challenges of parenting. Many at times need a great deal of support to help deal with the challenges of parenting especially if their child is suffering from a disability or medical condition (Barkley, 2005). According to Hunter, (2005) parents need emotional and social support. The existence of parenting educational support groups can assist in giving parents an opportunity of meeting these needs (Hunter, 2005). These groups also allow parents to speak their voice regarding ideas, desires, fears, and acknowledgments that parents would ordinarily have no one to turn to for expression (Hunter, 2005). Problem solving is an excellent benefit with parenting group membership; many parents are able to solve problems in more effective ways due to the experiences and input of others in the group (Hunter, 2005).

The STEP curriculum, although thorough and clear in theoretical meaning and application for assisting parents in gaining research based knowledge is worth little if members are not monitored for attendance and if the facilitator does not display standards of implementation. Standards include, organization, good understanding of the course objectives, utilize direct and specific speaking skills, retain good eye contact, and ask open ended questions. These standards relate directly to key elements of high fidelity such as, teacher training and teacher characteristics which are very important regarding fidelity of implementation (Dusenbury, et al., 2003).

Research Design

The primary research designed to be utilized to address the increase in objective curricular knowledge regarding objective one, is a quantitative one-group pretest – posttest design. According to Mark (1996) this type of research design is an improvement over a one shot case study design. With this design the creation and implementation of a knowledge survey based upon curricular chapter objectives for all eight sessions in order to measure an increase in knowledge is imperative (Mark, 1996). The second objective will utilize a quantitative single-subject design with direct observation by a curriculum expert who will utilize a research based Likert Scale survey to observe and indicate if the teaching facilitator of the parental educational support group implements and expresses standards that promotes conditions of high fidelity during the teaching of each of the eight sessions. According to Mark (1996) single-subject design is appropriate for use of evaluative procedures during observations of direct service. The third objective will utilize a qualitative analysis of the group attendance log to obtain an overall mean score of attendance.

The primary quantitative one-group pre and post test design can be expressed in the following terms; O1 represents the selected participants prior to the implementation of the STEP curriculum. X represents the STEP curriculum implementation phase. O2 represents post group participants after program implementation.

Participants will be purposively and randomly chosen from the incoming referral listing within the Catholic Charities Prevention Department. The individuals will be chosen by order and time of referral. Participants will be contacted and informed of their opportunity to participate within the evaluated parent education support group. Once the evaluator is notified that all six participants have agreed to participate with the evaluation, a date, location and time will be confirmed for first session.

Strengths regarding the chosen one-group pre and post test design with knowledge survey includes maintaining a minimal point of comparison in which can be measured for increases in learned knowledge of curriculum objectives (Mark, 1996). This design process is easy to implement and does not require a control group process (Mark, 1996). However; because this is a one-group pre and post test design; without a control group process, the following processes must be addressed to increase internal validity: Participants will be monitored for client functioning and cognitive understanding. Measures utilized for the pre and post test knowledge survey will be multiple, will be identical in pre and post test implementation, and based upon curriculum research objectives. Every consideration and effort will be taken to assure a quiet and available learning environment. Clients chosen will be confirmed as first time participants to the STEP parenting curriculum to avoid repeat parental referrals.

Strengths regarding the single-subject design process include; the ability to observe and collect data in order to understand if there was a change in behavior and if certain interventions were the causation of the change in behavior (Mark, 1996). However, because an observation requires the detailed examination of detailed information, the following processes must be addressed to increase internal validity: The trained observer will be certified within the STEP curriculum, will be a trained public speaker, and will be in possession of session objectives during the observation. The observer will utilize a Likert Scale survey with multiple items based upon communication and curriculum research. The items and measures will be identical over eight separate group sessions. Participants will be monitored for attendance in order to assess periods of drop out over the period of eight sessions.

Sample Design & Selection

For the purpose of this evaluation a random purposeful sample will be utilized. Criteria includes the referral or voluntary joining of the STEP parent support group. Those participants who join or are referred during the selection process will be asked to participate. Information will be gathered from inner agency referral listings, participants will be notified by phone. In effort to retain participants and to reduce low participation and attrition, a reinforcing incentive of $50.00 for attending all eight sessions will be offered to participants. Participants will be given $10.00 upon first session attendance, $20.00 upon fourth session attendance, and $20.00 payment upon eighth session attendance. The members will be told of the reinforcement payment prior to participation, however, they will not be told what sessions in which they will receive each payment in an effort to promote consistent attention.

In regard to participant confidentiality and ethical obligations a number of steps will be taken to ensure and protect participants. Participants will be informed by phone and upon the first day of group that their participation is voluntary (Royse, Thyer, Padgett & Logan, 2006). The purpose of the study, the duration of the program implementation, evaluation, and confirmation of group location will be discussed (Royse, et al., 2006). Topics, acknowledgement of an outside expert observer, and process procedures will also be discussed with all participants prior to participation (Royse, et al., 2006). An understanding of the benefits of the evaluation and the risk or dangers of the evaluation process for participants will be a priority (Royse, et al., 2006). If dangers or risk are found to exist, the evaluation process will cease. Confidentiality will be considered to be of the up most of importance and individuals if they choose to volunteer for the evaluation will not expose their names upon evaluative instrumentation, instead will be informed prior and issued a number (01 – 06) in regards to identifying each of the six participants (Royse, et al., 2006). Every effort will be taken to disclose the identity of the participants (Royse, et al., 2006). The expert observer, the trained facilitator, and group members will sign a statement of confidentiality in regards to the sharing of identities of participants. Participants will sign a project permission document as seen in (Appendix D). The reinforcement pay for consistent attendance will be acknowledged and participants will be informed of the amount they will receive for their participation (Royse, et al., 2006). Participants will be informed that they have the right to withdraw from the evaluation group at anytime (Royse, et al., 2006). However, non-voluntary court appointed individuals will be informed that upon voluntary withdraw from the evaluation they will be referred to another parenting group that will meet the requirements of the court.
Measurement – (See Appendix B for Instrument / Itemized Measure examples)

The outcome evaluation will seek to measure through the implementation of a pre and post test if an increase in knowledge was found significant. The knowledge survey and itemized measures will be based upon the research based information that has constructed each of the sixteen objectives within the STEP parenting program curriculum. A total of sixteen itemized measures based upon curriculum objectives over eight sessions will be constructed with a true or false option of choice as seen in (Appendix C). These measures are considered to be at the interval level. Each measure is considered to be valued as one point. To increase validity and reliability the pre and post knowledge survey will be constructed with clear instructions, items will be clear, explanatory and direct (Mark, 1996). The instrumentation and measures will meet human subject standards and be examined by a panel of experts.

The process evaluation will seek to measure if conditions represented high fidelity based upon the expression and implementation by the facilitator over eight teaching sessions of five measurable items that relate to good communication and curriculum information. An expert observer and trained public speaker will observe each session to verify expressed standards. The measurable standards are research based and constructed by the researcher for the purpose of the process observation evaluation.

The measurable standards are as follows;

Standard one: According to Franken & Gelman (1998), reviewing with good understanding and preparing to explain information to others is an important process in the explanation of any materials. Standard two: Ryan & Kuhs, (1993) identifies that organization of presentation notes and materials is a more affective way of teaching.
Standard three: According to Westra (1996), using direct and specific speaking skills allows the clients to communicate and effectively understand the exchanged messages (p.115). Standard four: According to Westra (1996) good eye contact is a very important non-verbal behavior to use in a consistent and periodic manner in order for the worker and client to retain good attention (p.62) . Standard five: According to Fine & Glasser (1996) asking open ended questions should be utilized in order for the facilitator or teacher to gain a clear message of how the listener is understanding the message. According to Fine & Glasser (1996) open ended questions allow expression of feelings and processes relevant to communicating understanding (p.69). The response by the listeners should reveal and allow the expression of feelings and processes relevant to communicating understanding of the curriculum.

The Likert Scale measuring numerals were constructed by the researcher for this current process observation evaluation.

These measuring variables should be chosen according to the observations of the curriculum expert and the level of expression by the teaching facilitator should be clearly indicated. The level of measurement based upon the constructed questioner and measures can be clarified as ordinal. To increase validity and reliability the observation questioner will also be constructed with clear instructions, items will be clear and based on research, explanatory and direct (Mark, 1996). The instrumentation and measures will also meet human subject standards and be examined by a panel of experts.

The evaluation of the client log will be monitored by the expert observer after each session. The observer will sustain a weekly log indicating attendance over the 8 week period. Issues of validity and reliability include: The curriculum expert observer verifying through observation the attendance of correct number of participants for each session based upon member’s assigned numbers (See Appendix E).

Analysis

The analysis of interval level data regarding the outcome evaluation can be represented through a pre and post test chart. The facilitator will be required to give clear instructions regarding testing procedures upon the first meeting prior to session instruction. The facilitator will be required to retrieve all six knowledge based surveys when all group members have finished the examination process. The facilitator will collect instruments and place them into a safe keeping area under lock and key until time of analysis. In conclusion of the eighth session the facilitator will repeat the entire process exactly as within the first session. Upon collection of all examinations, instrumentation will be placed in a sealed envelope and given to the researcher. The researcher will perform a Paired T-Test Analysis comparing increases in group performance from pre test to post test. The total number of possible correct answers on each examination is (16). Because there are six participants, there is a group total of (96) possible point’s per session. The analysis includes the calculation of the group-mean score per session by summing the total number of correct answers per session and dividing each session total by the number of participants which is (6) in (Figure 1.3). Group performance percentage can be calculated by dividing the number of items correct by the number of possible points within each pre or post session. The actual increase in group percentage performance can be represented by calculating the difference between pre test percentage correct and post test percentage correct. The standard deviation can be correlated by using the simple standard score converter (North Central Association, 2007). This converter requires that the researcher enter the correct mean scores per pre and post sessions (NCA, 2007).

The analysis of the ordinal level data regarding the process observation evaluation can be represented in itemized terms over the extent of eight sessions as indicated. Within the observational data there are two primary areas of interest. First, the total number of expressed variables based upon perceived level of expression. These variables are itemized and expressed in mean and percentage of total points expressed by the facilitator over eight sessions. During the eight week process the observer is instructed to place each sessions observation information into sealed envelopes and placed under lock and key. The researcher will collect all 8 surveys from the expert observer at the end of the 8th session. The researcher will list each standard of expressive item upon a graph. Each item will be allocated with the number indicated regarding expression of the item based on observation within each session. The sum of the total number of points expressed per item over eight sessions is calculated. The sum of all items points over eight sessions is calculated and divided by eight sessions to calculate the mean score. The total amount of expressed points earned vs. the total number of points possible over eight sessions per item is indicated and can be calculated in percentage form by dividing the amount earned by the total amount of points possible (40).

Secondly, the researcher will be particularly interested in the identifying and documenting of the percentage of increase in progressive skill expression. The curriculum expert observer within each session as indicated prior gives an indicated level of expression for each item. As indicated below it is possible to identify a progressive percentage increase in performance of the facilitator over all eight sessions. This is possible by dividing each numeral (1,2,3,4,5) as indicated within (Appendix B) of the observational instrument. Each numeral can be clarified as 20% of a total possible point attainment for each item, in each session up to 5 or 100% of possible expression. This representation can express the total percentage of progress regarding expression of the standard items from session one through session eight.

Analysis of client log will include the listing of all six members per session. Log information will also be placed in envelopes over eight sessions and placed under lock and key until final analysis by researcher. Each member will indicated the time, date and group member identity number as mentioned earlier for ensured confidentiality and as seen in (Appendix E). The researcher will indicate through analysis the total percentage of participation in each session. This can be done by dividing the number of members who actually attended by the maximum number of possible participants. Deviations and low percentages in attendance within certain sessions could explain possible differences and incorrect answers upon post test surveys rather than inferring the low score to low fidelity of implementation. This can be analyzed by the researcher through examining the date of member’s absence, the incorrect question, the related objective to the question, and the week in which the objective curricular information would have been taught.

In concluding, it is important to understand that parents in today’s modern society need effective knowledge based information that will assist with making clear and effective decisions when parenting their children. The rapidly changing environment demands that children interact and develop in an environment in which making choices and authoritative parenting is the hallmark of the family system. The overall goal of this evaluation proposal is to evaluate if group members have learned program objectives that relate to good parenting and to evaluate if implementation conditions meet standards of high fidelity. Because of this goal of measuring knowledge outcomes and observing if the curriculum was taught in a way in which group members could effectively understand curriculum objectives, this evaluation requires outcome and process evaluations through quantitative pre and post t-test measures, single-subject design observations with quantitative Likert Scale standard measures and a quantitative analysis of attendance percentages. It is expected that a correlation between an expected increase in knowledge, conditions of high fidelity based upon facilitator compliance in teaching objectives and consistent attendance by group members would be represented within final analysis when proposed evaluation is implemented. With the finalized understanding of increased knowledge by group members it is desired that group members will utilize obtained research based knowledge to effectively assist them in parenting their children.

Laverne J. Riley Jr.

University of Michigan

School of Social Work

SW 683

Full Moon Rising – One Of The Best Paranormal Romance Werewolf Books

As far as paranormal romance and werewolf books go, Keri Arthur is still one of the best on my favorites list. Her characters and storyline are intriguing and one of a kind. And I’ll go as far as to say even unique!

As one of the Riley Jenson Guardian series, Full Moon Rising is the book that drew my attention to this author. I know I am a little late discovering this series, but on the bright side, I don’t have to wait for the next book release! I’ve already added her entire Riley Jenson Guardian series and her back list to must have list.

Ms. Arthur throws us right into the action within the first few pages and immediately we get a feel for the type of heroine Riley will turn out to be. In the beginning of the series, Riley along with her twin brother Rhoan, are both part of the Directorate – an organization which is responsible for policing all the supernatural races. They investigate any and all murder cases that involve vampires, werewolves, or shape-shifters.

While Riley’s job function is supposed to be more in the secretarial area, her superior has been insistently pushing her in the direction of becoming a Guardian in the same steps as her brother. But becoming a trained assassin for the Directorate is the very last thing she wants.

When her brother goes missing, a turn of fate steps in and forces her into the position of searching for him. But as fate would have it, along the way she meets an ├╝ber sexy vampire, Quinn, who just happened to be standing deliciously naked on her doorstep when she found him, with a minor loss of memory. But her werewolf feelings set aside, she has to resist the intense cravings the heat of the moon brings out between them long enough to search out and find her brother.

Ms. Arthur delivered fast paced action with some of the sexiest supernatural men that I’ve read about with a group of tasteful, easy to relate to characters, and some wickedly disturbing plot twists. Altogether, I loved Book one of the Riley Jenson series, Full Moon Rising. I’ve already got Kissing Sin – Book 2 sitting on my e-reader, waiting for me to dive in!

If you are a lover of werewolf books, paranormal romance, and dark, urban fantasy, this book is high on my MUST READ LIST and I highly recommend it for yours!